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Wetland Values Bibliography with Focus on Monetary Value
(Balmford 2002) Andrew Balmford, Aaron Bruner, Philip Cooper, Robert Costanza, Stephen Farber, Rhys E. Green, Martin Jenkins, Paul Jefferiss, Valma Jassamy, Joah Madden, Kat Munro, Norman Myers, Shahid Naeem, Jouni Paavola, Matthew Rayment, Sergio Rosendo, Joan Roughgarden, Kate Trumper, and R. Kerry Turner, "Economic reasons for conserving wild nature", Science, 2002.08.09, Volume 297, Issue 5583, pages 950-953.
(Barbier 2002) Edward B. Barbier, Ivar Strand, and Suthawan Sathirathai, "Do Open Access Conditions Affect the Valuation of an Externality? Estimating the Welfare Effects of Mangrove-Fishery Linkages in Thailand", Environmental and Resource Economics, 2002, Volume 21, Number 4, pages 343-367, http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015129502284 or http://www.springerlink.com/content/6mlbbldx021gm5mt/
(Batie 1985) Sandra S. Batie and Carl C. Mabbs-Zeno, "Opportunity Costs of Preserving Coastal Wetlands: A Case Study of a Recreational Housing Development", Land Economics, 1985.02, Volume 61, Issue 1, pages 1-9.
(Bockstael 2000) N. E. Bockstael, A. M. Freeman, R. J. Kopp, et al., "On measuring economic values for nature", Environmental Science and Technology, 2000, Volume 34, pages 1384-1389.
(Boumans 2002) Roelof Boumans, Robert Costanza, Joshua Farley, Matthew A. Wilson, Rosimeiry Portela, Jan Rotmans, Ferdinando Villa, and Monica Grasso, "Modeling the dynamics of the integrated earth system and the value of global ecosystem services using the GUMBO model", Ecological Economics, June 2002, Volume 41, Issue 3, pages 529-560, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00098-8
(Breaux 1995) A. Breaux, Stephen Farber, and J. Day, "Using Natural Coastal Wetlands Systems for Waste-Water Treatment - an Economic Benefit Analysis", Journal of Environmental Management, 1995, Volume 44, Issue 3, pages 285-291.
(Brouwer 1999) R. Brouwer, I. H. Langford, I. J. Bateman, and R. K. Turner, "A meta-analysis of wetland contingent valuation studies", Regional Environmental Change, 1999.12, Volume 1, Number 1, pages 47-57, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s101130050007 or http://www.springerlink.com/content/rebymtn9d38kpht9/
(Bell 1998) Frederick W. Bell, 1998.06.08, "The economic valuation of saltwater marsh supporting marine recreational fishing in the southeastern United States", Ecological Economics, Volume 21, Issue 3, pages 243-254, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(96)00105-X
(BT 2005) "Benefits Transfer and Valuation Databases: Are We Heading in the Right Direction?", Proceedings of an International Workshop Sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Center for Environmental Economics and Environment Canada, Washington, District of Columbia, USA, 2005.03.21, http://yosemite.epa.gov/EE/epa/eed.nsf/webpages/btworkshop.html/$file/bt_workshop_proceedings.pdf
(1) Environmental Valuation Reference Inventory (EVRI) was highest ranked database overall by Van Lantz and Greg Slaney, page 3-6, though others may be better for specific areas or purposes, pages 3-9 to 3-10.
(2) Overall, these proceedings indicate that ecosystem-services valuation via "benefits transfer" (also called "value transfer") is difficult to do accurately and requires detailed information on ecosystems in the study area, their location, and their size.
(Bosch 1989) D. G. Bosch and Leonard A. Shabman, "The Decline of Private Sector Oyster Culture in Virginia: Causes and Remedial Policies", Marine Resource Economics, 1989, Volume 6, pages 227-243.
(Brander 2006) Luke M. Brander, Raymond J. G. M. Florax, and Jan E. Vermaat, "The Empirics of Wetland Valuation: A Comprehensive Summary and a Meta-Analysis of the Literature", Environmental and Resource Economics, 2006, Volume 33, Number 2, pages 223-250, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10640-005-3104-4 or http://www.springerlink.com/content/w165u886w4rr5085/
(Byström 2000) Olof Byström, "The Replacement Value of Wetlands in Sweden", Environmental and Resource Economics, Volume 16, Number 4, pages 347-362, http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008316619355 or http://www.springerlink.com/content/m4w342nh2wh31377/
(Chang 2009) Chang, W.K., C.O. Shin, C.H. Koh and S.H. Yoo (2009) Measuring the environmental value of Saeng Island in Busan, Korea with allowing for zero values. KMI International Journal 1: 24-31.
(Chen 2004) Chen WeiQi, Hong HuaSheng, Liu Y., "Recreation demand and economic value: an application of travel cost method for Xiamen Island", China Economic Review, 2004, Volume 15, Issue 4, pages 398-406.
(Choi 2004) Choi YoungRae, "Mobilising rice for land reclamation: Production of land and the Accumulation of Capital in South Korea", Master of Science in Nature, Society & Environmental Policy, A dissertation submitted 3 September 2004, School of Geography & the Environment, University of Oxford.
(Costanza 1989) Robert Costanza, Stephen C. Farber, and Judith Maxwell, "Valuation and management of wetland ecosystems", Ecological Economics, 1989.12, Volume 1, Issue 4, pages 335-361, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-8009(89)90014-1
(Costanza 1997) Robert Costanza, Ralph d'Arge, Rudolf de Groot, Stephen Farber, Monica Grasso, Bruce Hannon, Karin Limburg, Shahid Naeem, Robert V. O'Neill, Jose Paruelo, Robert G. Raskin, Paul Sutton, and Marjan van den Belt, "The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital", Nature, 1997.05.15, Volume 387, Number 15, pages 253-260, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/387253a0 or http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v387/n6630/abs/387253a0.html
(Costanza 2007) Robert Costanza, Matthew Wilson, Austin Troy, Alexey Voinov, Shuang Liu, John D'Agostino, The Value of New Jersey's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, Gund Institute for Ecological Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA and New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton, New Jersey, USA, 2006.07, http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dsr/naturalcap/nat-cap-2.pdf
(1) Costanza 2007 used a different classification than MEA-Finlayson 2005:
1st abiotic and non-renewable (such as, mineral deposits) portions of natural capital were separated from ecosystem goods and services,
2nd ecosystem goods were separated from ecosystem services, and
3rd ecosystem services were divided into twelve categories: Gas/Climate Regulation, Disturbance Regulation, Water Regulation, Water Supply, Soil Formation, Nutrient Cycling, Waste Treatment, Pollination, Biological Control, Habitat/Refugia, Aesthetic and Recreation, Cultural and Spiritual. Only these "ecosystem services" were estimated by Costanza 2007. The "[Costanza 2007] ecosystem goods", which were reportedly evaluated in a separate companion study, correspond to the "provisioning services" of MEA-Finlayson 2005, except that Costanza 2007 included Water Supply in their "ecosystem services".
(2) Used ISI Web of Science and EVRI databases for literature search.
(3) [Selected quote] Significant gaps exist in the valuation literature, including gas and climate regulation provided by wetlands; disturbance prevention provided by freshwater wetlands; disturbance prevention, water supply, and water regulation provided by forests; and nutrient regulation, soil retention/formation, and biological control provided by a number of ecosystems.
(4) Table 4, Table 5, and Appendix C provide an update to Costanza 1997 for a portion of the ecosystem-services values estimated in Costanza 1997. However, Costanza 2007 based their estimate for estuary "nutrient cycling (i.e., waste dilution and removal)" (page iii) entirely on Costanza 1997, and this accounted for 91% of the "[Costanza 2007] ecosystem services" from New Jersey estuaries. Nutrient cycling accounted for 92% of the "[Costanza 1997] ecosystem services" from global estuaries, which included food supply and raw materials. Costanza 1997 estimated estuary nutrient-cycling value by multiplying global river flows into oceans by a volumetric cost for wastewater treatment from Richard 1991 and by the fraction of total nitrogen and phosphorus from rivers removed in estuaries from Nixon 1996. Waste treatment accounted for about 90% of the "[Costanza 2007] ecosystem services" from New Jersey saltwater wetlands. The waste-treatment value that Costanza 2007 derived from Costanza 1997, who in turn estimated tidal-marsh waste-treatment value from de Groot 1992, was $3,382 per acre of tidal marsh per year. The three values Costanza 2007 derived from Breaux 1995 ranged from $109 to $16,560 per acre per year. Breaux 1995 estimated the cost savings that three wastewater treatment plants (one municipal and two food processing) achieved by discharging partially treated wastewater into forested coastal wetlands in Louisiana rather than providing additional (tertiary) treatment for their wastewater. Variability in Breaux 1995 resulted from different treatment standards driving different technologies for cost comparison to wetlands as well as the size of the wetlands used for tertiary treatment and the corresponding wastewater and nutrient loading rates (mass/area/time); the higher wetland values per acre represented cases with higher wastewater loadings, which may exceed typical nutrient loadings to wetlands in New Jersey. So, the Costanza 2007 water-quality ecosystem services (nutrient cycling and waste treatment) accounted for large fractions of the totals and were based on 1991 to 1996 publications with high variability. Wang 2010 estimated waste-treatment ecosystem services of $35,000 to $55,000 per acre per year (US$8.7 to $13.5 per square meter per year), which accounted for about 90% of their total ecosystem services from tidal flats and shallow seas in the somewhat warmer climate near Xiamen, Fujian, China, based on hydrodynamic and pollutant-dispersion tidal modeling and local wastewater treatment costs. Wang 2010 included provisioning services in their total, but their estimate for provisioning services may be low; see JDH comments on Peng 2010 and Wang 2010. The higher values estimated by Wang 2010 may result from higher concentrations of nutrients in the coastal wetlands and waters near Xiamen -- due to larger municipal, industrial, and aquaculture partially-treated wastewater discharges (Xue 2004) -- resulting possibly in a greater reliance on coastal wetlands for water quality near Xiamen compared to, for example, the Netherlands or New Jersey. Though Wang 2010 roughly agrees with Costanza 1997 and Costanza 2007, more estimates are needed of water-quality ecosystem services from temperate coastal wetlands -- such as tidal flats, marshes, estuaries, and shallow bays. Liu Shuang 2010.02 Figure 7 (page 72), based on 2007.02.10 EVRI queries, also suggests that there is only a small amount of "waste regulation" ecosystem-services valuation data, much less than the valuation data in EVRI on "water supply". Coastal (and other) wetlands often remove nutrients from high-volume but low-nutrient-concentration water flows. Such flows are difficult to treat in municipal wastewater treatment plants, which achieve better removal rates at higher concentrations. So, wetland nutrient-removal ecosystem-services estimates based on costs per ton for nutrient removal (money/mass) via wastewater-treatment plants may not accurately reflect their service of removing nutrients present at low concentrations in large volumes of tidal or river water.
(5) [Annotated quote] Value transfer identifies previously conducted high-quality studies of the value of ecoservices in a variety of locations using a variety of valuation methods and applies them to New Jersey ecosystems. Value transfer is the preferred valuation technique where (as in this case) performing original research for an extended geographic region with varied ecosystem types would be prohibitively expensive. For the present study, we identified and used a total of 100 earlier studies covering the types of ecosystems present in New Jersey; 94 of these studies are original research previously published in peer reviewed journals. Some studies provided more than one estimated ecoservice value for a given ecosystem; the set of 100 studies provided a total of 210 individual value estimates. We translated each estimate into dollars per acre [0.4 hectares] per year, computed the average value for a given ecoservice for a given ecosystem, and multiplied the average by the total statewide acreage for that ecosystem. [...] all figures are 2004 dollars. The figures include only ecosystem services; they do not include ecosystem or abiotic goods or secondary economic activity related to a given ecosystem. Wetlands provided the largest dollar value of ecosystem services: $9.4 billion/yr [48% of the 19.4 billion 2004-U.S. dollars per year total] for freshwater wetlands and $1.2 billion/yr [6%] for saltwater wetlands [excluding estuaries and tidal bays]. The most valuable services were disturbance regulation ($3.0 billion/yr [15%]), water filtration ($2.4 billion/yr [12%]), and water supply ($1.3 billion/yr [7%]) for freshwater wetlands, and waste treatment ($1.0 billion/yr [5%]) for saltwater wetlands. (Disturbance regulation means the buffering of floods, storm surges, and other events that threaten things valued by individuals or by society as a whole.) [...] Marine ecosystems provided the second-largest dollar amount of ecosystem services: $5.3 billion/yr [27%] for estuaries and tidal bays and about $389 million/yr [2%] for other coastal waters, including the coastal shelf out to the three-mile limit. (It should be noted that the fish and shellfish obtained from these ecosystems are covered elsewhere in this report and are not included in these totals.) Nutrient cycling (i.e., waste dilution and removal) was the most important service provided by marine ecosystems, with a value of $5.1 billion/yr [26%]. [...] Beaches (including dunes) provided by far the highest ecoservice value per acre; their small area limited their annual ecoservice value [...] In general, areas containing wetlands, estuaries, tidal bays, and beaches had the highest ecosystem service values per acre. [... Costanza 2007 also estimated the ecosystem services values of forests, urban green space, agricultural lands, and open fresh water and riparian buffers.]
(Costanza 2008) Robert Costanza, Octavio Pérez-Maqueo, M. Luisa Martinez, Paul Sutton, Sharolyn J. Anderson, and Kenneth Mulder, "The value of coastal wetlands for hurricane protection", Ambio, 2008.06, Volume 37, Number 4, pages 241-248, http://allenpress.com/pdf/AMBI-37-4-241.pdf or http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18686502
(de Groot 1992) Rudolf S. de Groot, Functions of Nature: Evaluation of Nature in Environmental Planning, Management, and Decision Making, Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen, Netherlands, 1992.
(Jin 2003) Di Jin, Porter Hoagland, and Tracey Morin Dalton, "Linking economic and ecological models for a marine ecosystem", Ecological Economics, 2003.10, Volume 46, Issue 3, pages 367-385, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2003.06.001
[JDH Notes] Provides an example of integrating ecological and economic models, focussing on a fishery. The Georges Bank was the ecological component used for this demonstration, so provides no direct information on coastal-wetland monetary value.
EcoValue Project, http://ecovalue.uvm.edu
[Description from Liu 2010.02] The site uses empirical studies from the published literature which are then used to estimate the economic value of ecosystem services. Using watersheds as the primary unit of spatial aggregation, the project provides ecosystem service value estimates for the State of Maryland and the four state Northern Forest regions, including New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. The end result is a [Geographic Information Systems] GIS value transfer platform capable of providing the best available valuation data to researchers, decision makers, and public stakeholders throughout the world.
(Endo 2008) Isao Endo, Guideline for Economic Analyses of Environmental Management Actions for the Yellow Sea, UNDP/GEF Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (YSLME) Project, Ansan, Republic of Korea, 2008.07, http://www.yslme.org/pub/pdf/econ%20guide_final.pdf
(1) See: https://factplusfancy.com/pbw/ys/11/Yellow_Sea_Region_Greenfield_Sites_Cost-Benefit_Comparison#2
(2) The description of negative externalities (damages) in Section 2.2 and Figure 2 does not consider that the damages caused by a producer may be much more (or less) than the cost to that producer of preventing them. Figure 2 appears misleadingly incomplete without showing the diverse supply curves that may be improved (lower cost per unit production) by the reduction in damages resulting from, in the Section 2.2 example, pollution control.
(Endo 2012) Endo, I., Walton, M., Chae, S., and Park, G. S. (2012). Estimating Benefits of Improving Water Quality in the Largest Remaining Tidal Flat in South Korea. Wetlands, 32(3), 487-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13157-012-0282-z
(EVRI) Environmental Valuation Reference Inventory, http://www.evri.ca/
(1) Useful summaries of published reports. Not clear how current it is for China and Korea. See BT 2005 above.
(2) Not intended to (and does not) provide summary tables of money/time/area values and uncertainties estimated for various ecosystem-services. Considering current data quality, this may be a wise decision.
(3) Eight searches covering (wetland OR reclamation OR coast OR coastal) AND (china OR korea) only turned up two studies relevant to coastal-wetland filling, Zhao 2004, which reportedly relies on Costanza 1997, and an in-press copy of Chen 2004. Peng 2010 and Wang 2010 were not returned. No studies from Korea were returned.
(Farber 1987) Stephen Farber and Robert Costanza, "The Economic Value of Wetlands Systems", Journal of Environmental Management, 1987, Volume 24, Issue 1, pages 41-51.
(Fisher 2008) Brendan Fisher and R. Kerry Turner, "Ecosystem services: Classification for valuation", Biological Conservation, 2008.05, Volume 141, Issue 5, pages 1167-1169, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.02.019
[JDH Notes] An evaluation of ecosystem-services classifications with a useful warning about double-counting supporting and "intermediate" services. The MEA-Finlayson 2005 classification for wetland-ecosystem services stands.
(Gren 1993) Ing-Marie Gren, "Alternative Nitrogen Reduction Policies in the Mälar Region, Sweden", Ecological Economics, 1993.04, Volume 7, Issue 2, pages 159-172, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0921-8009(93)90051-7
(Gren 1994) Ing-Marie Gren, C. Folke, K. Turner, and I. J. Bateman, "Primary and Secondary Values of Wetland Ecosystems", Environmental and Resource Economics, 1994, Volume 4, pages 55-74.
(Gren 1995) Ing-Marie Gren, "The Value of Investing in Wetlands for Nitrogen Abatement", European Review of Agricultural Economics, 1995, Volume 22, pages 157-172.
(Grigalunas 1995) T. A. Grigalunas, J. J. Opaluch, J. Diamantides, and G. M. Brown, Environmental economics for integrated coastal area management: Valuation methods and policy instruments, UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya, 1995.
(Han QiuYing 2008) Han QiuYing 韩秋影, Huang XiaoPing, Shi Ping, Zhang JingPing, "Seagrass Bed Ecosystem Service Valuation -- A Case Research on Hepu Seagrass Bed in Guangxi Province", Marine Science Bulletin, China National Marine Data and Information Service, Tianjin, China, 2008.05, Volume 10, Issue 1, pages 87-96, http://www.coi.gov.cn/english/ewx/tb.htm
(Hwang 2009) D. H. Hwang, J. Y. Choi, S. M. Yi, D. H. Han, and S. H. Jang, "The land use plan and water quality prediction for the Saemangeum reclamation project", Water Science & Technology, 2009, Volume 59, Number 7, pages 1397–1408, http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2009.117 or http://www.iwaponline.com/wst/05907/wst059071397.htm
(Jenkins 2010) W. Aaron Jenkins, Brian C. Murray, Randall A. Kramer, and Stephen P. Faulkner, "Valuing Ecosystem Services from Wetlands Restoration in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley", Ecological Economics, 2010.03.15, Volume 69, Issue 5, pages 1051-1061, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.11.022
(Kahn 1985) J. R. Kahn and W. M. Kemp, "Economic Losses Associated with the Degradation of an Ecosystem: The Case of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Chesapeake Bay", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1985, Volume 12, pages 246-263.
(Kahn 1987) J. R. Kahn, "Measuring the Economic Damages Associated with Terrestrial Pollution of Marine Ecosystems", Marine Resource Economics, 1987, Volume 4, pages 193-209.
(King 2000) Dennis M. King and Marisa J. Mazzotta, "Finding Ecosystem Valuation on the World Wide Web", "Ecosystem Valuation", Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland, Solomons, Maryland, USA, http://www.ecosystemvaluation.org/links.htm
(Knowler 1997) D. Knowler, I. Strand, and E. B. Barbier, "An Economic Analysis of Black Sea Fisheries and Environmental Management: Final Report", The Black Sea Environment Programme, World Bank/UNEP Global Environmental Facility (GEF), Istanbul, Turkey and Rome, Italy, 1997.
(Kramer 1986) R. Kramer and Leonard A. Shabman, "Incentives for Agricultural Development of U.S. Wetlands: A Case Study of the Bottomland Hardwoods of the Lower Mississippi River Valley", Agriculture and the Environment, Edited by T. Phipps, P. Crosson, and K. Price, Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, District of Columbia, USA, 1986, pages 175-201.
(Kramer 1993), Randall A. Kramer and Leonard A. Shabman, "The Effects of Agricultural and Tax Policy Reform on the Economic Return to Wetland Drainage in the Mississippi Delta Region", Land Economics, 1993.08, Volume 69, Issue 3, pages 85-126.
(Lee Seok 2010) Lee Seok, Lie HeungJae, Song KyuMin, and Cho ChelHo, "A tale of two coasts; Tidal modification in Saemangeum and Isahaya", Coastal Environmental and Ecosystem Issues of the East China Sea, edited by A. Ishimatsu and Lie HeungJae, TERRAPUB and Nagasaki University, Japan, 2010, pages 91-109, http://www.terrapub.co.jp/onlineproceedings/fs/nu/index.html
(Leitch 1988) J. Leitch and Leonard A. Shabman, "Overview of Economic Assessment Methods Relevant to Wetland Evaluation", The Ecology and Management of Wetlands, Volume 2: Management, Use, and Value of Wetlands, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, 1988, pages 95-102.
(Lipton 1995) D. W. Lipton, K. Wellman, I. C. Sheifer, and R. F. Weiher, Economic valuation of natural resources: A handbook for coastal resource policymakers, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, District of Columbia, USA, 1995.
(Liu Shuang 2009) Shuang Liu and D. Stern, "A meta-analysis of contingent valuation studies in coastal and near-shore marine ecosystems", Socio-Economics and the Environment Discussion (SEED) series, CSIRO.
(Liu Shuang 2010.02) Shuang Liu, Robert Costanza, Stephen Farber, and Austin Troy, "Valuing ecosystem services: Theory, practice, and the need for a transdisciplinary synthesis", Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, Series: Ecological Economics Reviews, 2010.02, Volume 1185, pages 54-78, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.2010.1185.issue-1 or http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nyas.2010.1185.issue-1/issuetoc
(1) This review suggests ecosystem-services valuation "in practice" in the USA has focused on damage estimates, under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), and cost-benefit analyses for regulatory-impact analyses. It briefly covers its use in decision-making prior to infrastructure investments in Europe. It has no discussion of its influence on environmental-impact statements, for instance under the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Perhaps as a result, it has no discussion of integrating ecosystem values with other values in cost-benefit analysis for investment or space-use decision-making.
(Liu Shuang 2010.05) Shuang Liu and Robert Costanza, "Ecosystem services valuation in China", Ecological Economics, 2010.05.15, Volume 69, Issue 7, pages 1387-1388, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.03.010
(Lynne 1981) G. D. Lynne, P. Conroy, and F. J. Prochaska, "Economic Value of Marsh Areas for Marine Production Processes", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1981, Volume 8, pages 175-186.
Maeng (2007) Maeng JunHo et al. (맹준호, 조광우, 김호석, 박하늘, 홍재상, 유재원, 이창근), Improving Environmental Assessment in Tidal Flat Reclamation, Environmental Assessment Group, Korea Environment Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2007.12.28 (Korean with English abstract) http://www.kei.re.kr
[Selected quote from English abstract] In the case of evaluation of marine biota production, the study estimated an ecosystem model to reflect energy flow among ecosystem constituents and examine food chains in tidal flat ecosystem. In the case of value assessment of pollution purification, existing problems were identified as follows;
1) Most of studies rely on BOD removal value of Odum.
2) Attempts to assess value based upon measured function have been not made enough.
3) Most studies based on the field or laboratory are heavy on limited functional groups (mainly microorganisms).
4) Functions of meiobenthos or macrobenthos have been ignored.
Particularly, roles of the latter have been underestimated and, high standing crops to other biota and effects of producing crops have been dropped in assessing functions of purification. To solve these problems, this study assessed the value by calculating standing and production crops of biological constituents in tidal flat ecosystem and converting the amount of carbon removed from them according to cost basis of the function of pollution purification of sewage processing terminal. The result shows that the amount reduced by tidal flat ecosystem amounted to about 1000 ton C/km2/year. This has the value of about 34,000,000(KRW) per ha. In other words, it has 3.3 to 95 times as much as value range (3,600,000 to 12,000,000 (KRW)) of purification set by Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries. [...]
In order to implement effective economic assessment of tidal flat reclamation, the study proposed following improvements;
1) Comprehensive review of diverse functions of tidal flat
2) Development indicators capable of estimating ecological, socio‐cultural, and economic functions of tidal flat
3) Development and application of diverse value assessment methods
4) Thoughtful analysis of stakeholder related to tidal flat
5) Establishment of long‐term planning for tidal flat management
Problem of existing economic assessment of tidal flat development is that economic benefits of development is inflated while environmental and indirect costs are rarely scrutinized. Therefore, there needs to examine the latter more carefully. In addition, diverse alternatives need to be discussed in current economic assessment. Alternatives to develop harbors and industrial complexes in places other than tidal flats should be considered in economic assessment.
(MacKinnon 2012) John MacKinnon, Yvonne I. Verkuil, and Nicholas Murray, IUCN situation analysis on East and Southeast Asian intertidal habitats, with particular reference to the Yellow Sea (including the Bohai Sea), 2012, Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission No. 47, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. ii + 70 pages, http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/SSC-OP-047.pdf
[Selected quote] Furthermore, an analysis of the impressive protected areas of the region (Yan et al. 2004, MacKinnon et al. 2005, BirdLife International and IUCN 2007) reveals that there is a bias in establishment towards mountain reserves and inland wetlands, but a significant lack of representation of lowlands, coastal and marine areas. The reasons for this bias are that it is easier to designate large protected areas in the agriculturally less productive and more remote mountain areas (combined with high levels of awareness for the need to protect upstream water catchments in this region of high rainfall). In the coastal zone, awareness of conservation needs is low, probably due to reasons of demography and access, and competition for coastal lands is greatest. (pages 28-29)
(McConnell 1989) K. E. McConnell and I. E. Strand, "Benefits from Commercial Fisheries When Demand and Supply Depend on Water Quality", Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1989, Volume 17, pages 284-292.
(MEA-Agardy 2005) Tundi Agardy, Jacqueline Alder, et al., "Chapter 19: Coastal Systems", Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends, Volume 1, Island Press, Washington, District of Columbia, USA, http://www.maweb.org/en/Condition.aspx or http://www.maweb.org/documents/document.288.aspx.pdf
(1) Table 19.2 is incomplete and incorrect, for instance, it indicates no wastewater treatment from tidal flats, neglecting: reductions in dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen due to biological growth, filter feeders, and sedimentation in tidal waters and flats, reduction in biochemical oxygen demand due to wind/wave aeration and photosynthesis, the reduction in tides that can result from filling or isolating tidal flats (reduced tidal prism), etc. See JDH notes on Costanza 2007.
(2) Section 19.3.2 Provides a summary review with a few qualitative examples, which appear to estimate only a small portion of the marginal benefits from ecosystem services (money/area/year).
(MEA-DeFries 2005) Ruth DeFries, Stefano Pagiola, et al., "Chapter 2: Analytical Approaches for Assessing Ecosystem Condition and Human Well-being", Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends, Volume 1, Island Press, Washington, District of Columbia, USA, http://www.maweb.org/en/Condition.aspx or http://www.maweb.org/documents/document.271.aspx.pdf
(MEA-Finlayson 2005) C. Max Finlayson, Rebecca D'Cruz, Nick Davidson, et al., Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis, World Resources Institute, Washington, District of Columbia, USA, http://www.maweb.org/en/index.aspx or http://www.maweb.org/documents/document.358.aspx.pdf
(1) Table 1, Ecosystem Services Provided by or Derived from Wetlands, (page 2) provides a useful classification system for wetland ecosystem services, which also matches the example classification in the definition of ecosystem services provided by Liu 2010.02 (page 54).
(2) Table 3.1 has same flaws as its source, MEA-Agardy 2005 Table 19.2.
(MIMES) Multiscale Integrated Models of Ecosystem Services, Gund Institute for Ecological Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA, http://www.uvm.edu/giee/mimes/
(Murray 2012) Nicholas J. Murray, Stuart R. Phinn, Robert S. Clemens, Chris M. Roelfsema, and Richard A. Fuller, "Continental Scale Mapping of Tidal Flats across East Asia Using the Landsat Archive", Remote Sensing, 2012, Volume 4, Number 11, pages 3417-3426, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs4113417
Natural Capital Project, http://www.naturalcapitalproject.org/publications.html, http://www.naturalcapitalproject.org/toolbox.html, etc.
(Nixon 1996) S. W. Nixon, J. W. Ammerman, L. P. Atkinson, V. M. Berounsky, G. Billen, W. C. Boicourt, W. R. Boynton, T. M. Church, D. M. DiToro, R. Elmgren, J. H. Garber, A. E. Giblin, R. A. Jahnke, N. J. P. Owens, M. E. Q. Pilson, and S. P. Seitzinger, "The fate of nitrogen and phosphorus at the land-sea margin of the North Atlantic Ocean", Biogeochemistry, 1996.
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[JDH Notes:] Critique of Costanza 1997 with reply by Costanza 1997 authors. Costanza 1997 method stands, but exchange is enlightening regarding potential errors. The reply is cited in Liu 2010.02 (reference 152 on page 78).
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[JDH Notes] (1) Benefit transfer based on Costanza 1997.
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